Tuesday, December 31, 2019

The Reliability of Eyewitness Testimony Essay - 1329 Words

The Reliability of Eyewitness Testimony Part 1 - How reliable is Eyewitness testimony? The Reconstructive nature of memory - Schemas and Stereotypes The reconstructive nature of memory is related to the schema theory. A schema is a package of memory that is organized and developed throughout our lives. Schemas are stored in long term memory. Most people have similar schemas and this was recognized by Bower, Black and Turner (1979) when they asked several people to recall the schema for the most important things they do when they go out to a restaurant for a meal. They found out that most people put the same main aspects in their schemas. Bartletts theory of Reconstructive Memory is†¦show more content†¦Some parts of information were forgotten and others were exaggerated. Bartletts study showed how our cultural expectations or stereotypes lead to predictable changes in memory. Stereotypes are schemas that summarize large amounts of information. Like schemas, stereotypes influence memory. He argued that schemas affect the retrieval process rather than the initial storage, but a study by Cohen (1981) suggested that schemas and stereotypes are important at both stages of memory: initial storage and retrieval. The effects of leading questions An eyewitnesss testimony about an event can be affected by the questions that are asked. For example, if the experimenter asks, did you see the broken headlight? rather than did you see a broken headlight? the use of the word the suggests there was a broken headlight and therefore the participant goes on to build up a memory for that headlight (Loftus and Zanni 1975). The language used in questioning eyewitnesses may alter what they remember. Loftus and Palmer (1975) showed their participants a series of projector slides of a multiple car accident. The participants then answered specific questions. It was found out that the information implicit in the question affected memory, even though the questions apparently only differedShow MoreRelatedThe Reliability Of Eyewitness Testimony999 Words   |  4 Pagesfairly ill-informed on the reliability of eyewitness testimony with judges having the most. Judges only had about an 8% difference in knowledge when compared to jurors. With this information it is very clear that education on the reliability of eyewitness testimony needs to become more of a general knowledge information for the everyone, especially people who are involved in upholding the law. Another factor to look into when evaluating the accuracy eyewitness testimony is the role that memory playsRead MoreThe reliability of eyewitness testimony has become a popular research topic in applied and social1200 Words    |  5 PagesThe reliability of eyewitness testimony has become a popular research topic in applied and social psychology since Loftus and Palmer’s study in 1974 (see Steblay, 1997; Wright Loftus, 1998; Deffenbacher, Bornstein, Penrod, McGorty, for reviews). Participants viewed videos or slides of traffic accidents (Loftus Palmer, 1974) or a criminal act (Roediger, Jacoby, McDermott, 1996; Cutler, Penrod, Martens, 1987) and afterwards were asked several questions about what they had just seen. The manipulationRead MoreReliability of the Human Memory1339 Words   |  5 PagesReliability of the human memory in eyewitness memory In this essay it will be argued how the human memory for recalling details of past events is not reliably accurate and that it will be interpreted through the reliability of memory in eyewitness memory and testimony. The human memory is a complex finding in the cognitive research of psychology, which can be explained by many different contributing factors but eyewitness is dependent upon the accuracy of long-term memory. However, research evidenceRead MoreThe Role of Eyewitness Testimony and the Weapon Effect in a Criminal Investigation 1241 Words   |  5 PagesEyewitness testimony plays a crucial role in criminal investigations. Thus, it is important to know how to eliminate factors that can negatively impact eyewitnesses’ recall ability. The result of eyewitness misidentification can lead to numerous inaccurate and wrongful convictions. One study suggests that more than 75,000 people a year become criminal defendants on the basis of eyewitness identifications (Schechel, OToole, Easterly, Loftus, 2006, p.178). Another study has shown that approximatelyRead MoreEyewitness Testimony Essay1299 Words   |  6 Pagespeople think things happened that never truly happened. Eyewitness testimo ny has always played an important role as evidence in the courts system. Juries on a trial tend to believe eyewitness testimony over any other evidence, even if other evidence differs from the eyewitness testimony. When little other evidence is presented, eyewitness testimony tends to be the primary focus. Many wrongful convictions have occurred due to these false eyewitness statements. According to George Vallas, in â€Å"A surveyRead MoreHow Does The Brain Malfunctions Affect The Justice System?1246 Words   |  5 Pageswrongfully convicted individuals by the eyewitness which is a huge issue in the system (Weir, 2016). It is crucial to be knowledgeable of the factors that can impede memory. The person that actually committed the crime should be held responsible for their actions, not only for justice, but for the safety of others as well. There are many factors to consider when psychologists and scientists are trying to figure out reliability of eyewitness testimony. The ability to recall or recognize isRead MoreEyewitness Testimony And Its Impact On The Outcome Of A Trial892 Words   |  4 PagesHow Accurate Are Eyewitness Testimonies? Have you ever been a witness to a crime? Would you feel comfortable if prosecutors relied on your eye witness testimony alone for a conviction? According to â€Å"The Magic of the Mind†, eyewitness testimony which relies on the accuracy of human memory, has an enormous impact on the outcome of a trial. Eyewitness testimony is a legal term. During an eyewitness testimony, the witness usually goes into an account of the crime he or she has witnessed. This can includeRead MoreAccuracy of an Eyewitness Testimony Essay2096 Words   |  9 PagesThe Accuracy of an Eyewitness Testimony Student: Amy Mason Number: 2842657 Tutor: Serena Nicholls Tutorial Time: Thursday 10am - 10:50am Due date: Friday 21st September 21, 2012 Word count: 1858 Psychological research shows that eyewitness testimony is not always accurate, therefore it should not be used in the criminal justice system. Discuss. The reliability if an eyewitness testimony is questionable. The witness may be so certain that the person that thy are pointing out is one hundredRead MoreEyewitness Testimony And Its Effect On The Credibility Of Eyewitness Testimonies952 Words   |  4 PagesEyewitness testimony is a hot button issue in not only the criminal justice field but also the psychology field as well. It continues to be argued that this type of â€Å"evidence† is far too unreliable for the court room and can ultimately end up punishing the wrong person for a crime they did not commit. The influence of an eyewitness testimony cannot be denied as research has showed that, â€Å"adding a single prosecution eyewitness to a murder trial summary increased the percentage of mock jurors’ guiltyRead MoreEyewitness Testimony And The American Psychological Association1580 Words   |  7 Pagesmodern law and judicial practices, eyewitness testimony has been a crucial part in reaching verdicts in court. The opinions and observations of bystanders or active participants in a crime scene are often considered to be very valuable in determining the guilt or innocence of accused individuals. However, there has been a large amount of scrutiny in the law world concerning both misappropriated and untrue testimonies administered in courts of law. Although the testimony of individuals can simply be misinterpreted

Monday, December 23, 2019

The Road by Cormac McCarthy - 1281 Words

Title of the Work: The Road Author: Cormac McCarthy Date of Publication: September 26, 2006 (September 26, 2006) Genre: Novel Historical information about the Setting: The novel takes place in the Southeastern part of United States. The characters take a journey, passing Texas, the post-apocalyptic landscape. During this time the novel is taken place, the country was experiencing depression and poverty. When McCarthy was writing this book, he was thinking about the future environment of of Texas. Narrative Techniques: The narrator is telling the novel in a third person point of view. The narrator is not part of the plot, though many times the narrator sounds like the Man. The narrator often describes the Man’s thoughts and opinions. The structure of this novel is unique because McCarthy is free to transition from one character to another. However, the main focus is on the Man. Biographical Information about the Author: Cormac McCarthy is a man born in Rhode Island on July 20, 1933. His parents were named Charles Joseph and Gladys Christian McGrail McCarthy. His had six siblings and he was the third of the six. McCarthy’s father was a lawyer which made his family move to many locations. His family had a Catholic background. He became a U.S. Air Force and returned to University of Tennessee in 1951. He majored in liberal arts and won many awards for his literary works. He then married to a woman named Lee Hollleman and had one son. Unfortunately, hisShow MoreRe latedThe Road By Cormac Mccarthy1531 Words   |  7 Pagesof punishment that anyone could be faced with. Cormac McCarthy shows the reaction isolation had on the characters in The Road. The Road, by Cormac McCarthy, follows an unnamed father and son as they travel towards the coast in search of safety after the world has been destroyed by a catastrophe. As they travel the road, the father has to protect his son from the threat of strangers, starvation, exposure and harsh weather. In The Road, Cormac McCarthy shows how humans react to isolation by when theRead MoreThe Road By Cormac Mccarthy1009 Words   |  5 PagesL’Heureux II, John Lang and Lit Year 2 2/10/2017 Written Task 2 Title of the text for analysis: The Road by Cormac McCarthy,2006 Part of the course to which the task refers: Part 4- Literature, a critical study Prescribed question: How does the text conform to, or deviate from, the conventions of a particular genre, and for what purpose? My critical response will: ââ€"  Show how the text conforms to the post-apocalyptic genre. ââ€"  Show how resources, including basics such as food and water, are a scarcityRead MoreThe Road By Cormac Mccarthy1584 Words   |  7 Pagestime can be unbearable if one is stripped of the most basic necessities. Such an event can greatly affect the behaviour of a person, as well as the ability to distinguish right from wrong. But like the boy and his father in the novel The Road by Cormac McCarthy they stuck to their morals to overcome the hardships they face. The novels recurring themes such as companionship, survival, and good versus evil, prove that a persons moral standards could change in a time of need. Companionship plays anRead MoreThe Road by Cormac McCarthy1708 Words   |  7 PagesThe Road by Cormac McCarthy is set in an apocalyptic world filled with hopelessness, mental fatigue, and few instances of happiness. Throughout the story, the man and the boy are looking for hope in anything and everything. Unfortunately every turn they take they continue to fall further into despair until they find a Coca-Cola. This soda has a unique meaning to the boy and the man. The Coca-Cola in Cormac McCarthy’s The Road symbolizes the world’s regression and gives hope to the man and boy byRead MoreThe Road By Cormac Mccarthy2405 Words   |  10 PagesNovember 26, 2016 The Road by Cormac McCarthy and its View of Parental Love and Hope in a Post-Apocalyptic World The boy s father tells him My job is to take care of you. I was appointed to do that by God. I will kill anyone who touches you. Do you understand? (McCarthy The Road) this sends such a powerful message about instinct, hope, and paternal love. These words so passionately from the lips of the father perfectly describes Cormac McCarthy s story of The Road and the power a father sRead MoreThe Road By Cormac Mccarthy968 Words   |  4 Pagescompassion in the toughest of situations, and leads us toward paths of peace. In this essay, examples will be drawn from Zak Ibrahim s keynote presentation, The Road by Cormac McCarthy, Beautiful Boy; a film directed by Shawn Ku, and Harrison Bergeron by Kurt Vonnegut. The loss of a loved one can help us find compassion. In The Road by Cormac McCarthy, the boy is the most compassionate person in the whole novel. At the end of the novel, when the boy s father dies, the boy is not thinking about hisselfRead MoreThe Road By Cormac Mccarthy1310 Words   |  6 Pages â€Å" The Road† written by Cormac McCarthy is a novel which uses a large variety of different language features to shape the reader s reaction and leading the readers into thinking the idea that our current world really is fallible.â€Å"The road† is about a strong loving relationship between the father and son. Which is shown on every page of the novel. They are fighting for survival in this apocalyptic world of humanity which is heading to an end. For anyone realising that our world is fallible is quiteRead MoreThe Road By Cormac Mccarthy2062 Words   |  9 PagesReid Norberg Period 3 3/18/16 2016 AP Lodestar 1. Title: The Road Author: Cormac McCarthy Date of Publication: 2006 Genre: Post- apocalyptic fiction 2. The Road is a novel written by American author Cormac McCarthy. Although born in the North East, McCarthy was driven to the South West later in his life where he has since based most of his novels, including The Road. The Road tells a story of a man and his son in post apocalyptic America where the weather is winter-like and the ground isRead MoreThe Road By Cormac Mccarthy1205 Words   |  5 PagesThe Road by Cormac McCarthy a recurring theme in the story is gaining or losing hope. Throughout this story there are numerous instances and events that occur in which all seems lost at a dead end, but in those moment hope carries through and thrives. In this dystopian post apocalyptic world the man and boy are fighting to stay alive while keeping their humanity as well as searching for what humanity is left in this kill or be killed cannibalistic planet. As their time journeying down the road increasesRead MoreThe Road By Cormac Mccarthy2128 Words   |  9 PagesEverything is suddenl y amplified and survival automatically becoming a key component to most. So what else can actually matters? Relationships are lost, but some may grow stronger. Ethics are tested, and beliefs suddenly change. In the novel, The Road by Cormac McCarthy, begins with America - or assuming the whole world- had gone through a unpredictable apocalypse. Combining what is left of the society and the world falling dangerously apart, it has caused them to go through many dangers to survive. Through

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Intergrated Marketing Plan for Home Run Inn Pizza Free Essays

Executive Summary The America frozen pizza market is the largest in the world; the US pizza market represents 43% of the global market. The magnitude of this market therefore, increases the Americans spending on frozen and fresh pizza to about $39. 8 billion each year. We will write a custom essay sample on Intergrated Marketing Plan for Home Run Inn Pizza or any similar topic only for you Order Now It was further confirmed through the Tyson Foods’ presentation at the national pizza conference that 33% of Americans consume frozen pizza at least once in every two weeks. There is no doubt that the busy schedules and the increasing demands in the modern day American family life has contributed to the huge spending in the frozen pizza category. The understanding of the frozen pizza market by the competitors further increases the competitive obsession among the players in the market. These major brands are all spending a lot on promotional campaigns so as to stay at the top of the competition. The top ten names within the frozen pizza category are: Digiorno, Freschetta, Tony’s, Red Baron, Tombstone, Bagel Bites, Totino’s, California kitchen, Stouffer’s and Mystic Pizza. Despite its very rich history, good packaging approach and been the Chicago number one frozen pizza, Home Run Inn pizza has not fully succeeded in reaching out to its target audience the same way its competitors have, therefore, Home Run Inn Pizza does not make it to the top ten amongst its’ competitors within the frozen pizza category. Our aim in this paper is to provide a comprehensive communication plan for Home Run Inn pizza in other to address its current market situation and provide an alternative campaign plan that will advance the awareness and recognition of the brand, Home Run Inn Pizza among its target audience. Brand Background Home Run Inn Pizza is the Chicago number one frozen pizza. The brand was started in West Side Chicago Bar, in the late 1940’s-In the home of Vincent and Mary Grittani. Nick Perino joined his mother-in-law, Mary, to create the famous Home Run Inn pizza after he returned from the World War II and the task of taking care of his family became a prevailing issue. Mary Grittani on the other hand, was looking for a way to fill the vacuum created by the demise of her husband-Vincent Grittani. Having come together as a family driven by necessity, they developed the recipes for their pizza and began making pizza together in the Home Run Inn Kitchen tavern and served the pizza as a way of encouraging their customers to patronize their drink. As a result of the success achieved while their pizza was been served for â€Å"luring purpose†, they seized the opportunity to launch into full time pizza production. While the demand for their pizza was growing bigger in the 50s, Nick started the frozen pizza approach in other to meet the increasing demands from the local people and those who lived far away (www. homeruninnpizza. om/our-story). Home Run Inn has over eight pizzerias operating in Chicago land and sells frozen pizza in more than twenty states in the United States. These locations are strategically located to meet the increase in demands of the pizza market. The name- Home Run Inn†¦ Prior to the involvement of Nick Perrino, the name Home Run Inn has been in exi stence since 1923. The name came into being through an unexpected incident that happened while a baseball game was been played in the neighborhood. One of the balls that were thrown accidentally landed on the front window of Mary and Vincent Gritanni’s newly acquired Tavern, thereby hattered the window. This unexpected incident gave birth to the name popularly known today as â€Å"Home Run Inn. † Market Analysis As earlier mentioned, the frozen pizza industry is a multi-billion dollars worth industry and each competitor within this market is striving to stay on top so as to have the major share of the category among its target group. Despite the highly competitive nature of the frozen pizza market, Home Run Inn Pizza has 22. 4% of the market share with Digiorno pizza having the largest share of the category. In 2009, Home Run Inn sales through the conventional grocery store were reported to be $46. million. Home Run Inn may not be among the top 10 leading pizzas on the national level but the brand still maintain its number one position within its Chicago heritage. In other to further its market strength Home Run Inn will need to extend its market participation beyond Chicago land. Though, Home Run Inn sells pizza in other States like Denver, Colorado and plan to open more pizzerias to compete within the market. Logo/packaging Home Run In has a unique logo that makes it easily recognizable among its competitors. This uniqueness contributes positively to the brand recognition nd awareness of Home Run Inn pizza in the market place. In other to meet up with the competitive demands, Home Run Inn pizza comes in different packages and styles. The smaller size of the Home Run Inn is designed for the people on the-go, who will like to have pizza during work hours. Home Run Inn styles are part of its attributes. These are: Home Run Inn Classic cheese, Signature, and Ultra thin. Home Run Inn Classic Cheese- Classic Cheese Recipe was perfected in 1947, itâ⠂¬â„¢s all: * All natural, no preservative, 0g trans fat per serving Available sizes: * 6 inch (7. oz) microwaveable, 10 inch (18. 5 oz), 12 inch (27. oz), 2-pack (54 oz) Ingredients: Crust: wheat flour, water, corn oil, yeast, salt Mozzarella cheese: Pasteurized part-skim milk, cheese cultures, salt, enzymes Sauce: Tomato puree, water, oregano, salt, black pepper Home Run Inn Signature It’s: * All natural, No preservative, 0g trans fat per serving Available size: 12 inch (31 oz. ) Ingredients: Crust: Wheat flour, water, corn oil, yeast, salt Mozzarella cheese: Pasteurized part-skim milk, cheese cultures, salt, enzymes Sauce: Tomato puree, water, oregano, salt, black pepper Sausage: Pork, salt, spices, flavoring, Mushrooms Home Run Inn Ultra Thin crust Classic pizza dough, stretched out thin for a cracker-thin, crispy crust. It’s: All natural, No preservative, 0g Trans fat Available sizes: * 6 inch (4 oz) microwaveable and 12 inch (16. 5 oz. ) Consumer Insight Home Run Inn started as a family business with a rich background; consumers having this knowledge tell their stories in various ways regarding their past and present relationship with the brand. We understand that consumers annot have same relationship with our product on the same level, while some have positive experience with our brand and are willing to buy again some are on the negative side while commenting on their experience with the brand Home Run Inn Pizza. Since our objective here is to revive our brand, using research instrument such as focus group will further allow us to get the opinions of the consumers. The information acquired through the opinion of the focus group would be used toward rebranding and updating our brand in the market place. The competition Home Run Inn competes within the frozen pizza category. The competitors with the Home Run Inn include the direct and the indirect competitors, who are both present to share the market with Home Run Inn Pizza. The direct competitors or the primary competitors are those within the same frozen pizza category with Home Run Inn; these include the private label brands and those groups that sell pizza through delivery via ordering online or eat-in. While the indirect competitors are the restaurants who do not sell pizza but their foods can be an alternative consumption for the pizza consumers’ market. These competitors are group under the following: Brand-HRI| Competitors/category: Direct- frozen| Indirect-as alternatives | Category-frozen| Digiorno, Freschetta, Tony’s, Red Baron, Tomstone, Bagel Bites, Totino’s , California, Stouffer’s, Mystic Pizza, Sams Club, Take and Bake, Gino’s East, Palermo’s, Newman’s own and all private label pizza. | Subway, McDonalds, Kentucky fried Chicken, Chipotle, Bueno beef, Popeyes, Olive garden, PF Changs, Red lobster, Chinese buffets, Denny’s and all the local restaurants. | Unfrozen-DirectDominos, Pizza hut, Mystic Pizza, Papa Jones, Rosati’s, Giordano, Chicago pizza, Jimmy Jones and all the pizza delivery restaurants. | | The brand image of Home Run Inn The perception of the consumers toward Home Run Inn is that of a family person who is caring, welcoming and willing to offer immediate solution to the wants of its consumers. We hope to further build on this image in this campaign. The bra nd value of Home Run Inn The brand value of Home Run Inn lies in its rich history-The consumers still ttach so much to the traditional heritage of the brand which places the brand as the Chicago number one among its audience. Home Run Inn brand Personality Home Run Inn is caring. We hope to use this personality to appeal to our target audience in our campaign for Home run Inn. Home Run Inn brand voice Home Run Inn frozen pizza brand voice sounds affectionate and persuasive to its consumers. The voice recognizes the busy nature of everyday life and its calling persuasively and tenderly, that it can help to reduce that burden of cooking after a busy day. What makes Home Run Inn Different? According to the Chicago Tribune, Home Run Inn Pizza is noted for its very distinctive â€Å"crusty† pizza and making its own sausage for its pizza. Home Run Inn SWOT Analysis Strength| weakness| * It has a rich history * It’s number one frozen pizza brand in Chicago * It operates pizzerias where family can visit and buy pizza * It’s easy to prepare * It has potential for growth | * According to some consumers in Indiana it is very difficult to find Home Run Inn pizza to buy in Indiana. * Inadequate brand awareness * No major TV Ads * More focused on Chicago market| Opportunity| Threat| * The frozen pizza market is big therefore, Home Run Inn can take advantage of the market * Opportunity to benefit from the huge amount spent by the consumers yearly * Home Run Inn can come up with new product, this can increase their market share| * The tough competition from the direct and the indirect competitors is the major treat * The private labels whose products are cheaper pose serious threat to the existence of Home Run in the market * The local restaurants provide an alternative choice for consumers. | Communication objective Our communication objective for Home Run Inn pizza is to increase the brand awareness and recognition among the target audience. Marketing Objective While the marketing objective for Home Run Inn is to increase sales of the brand by generating trial among the would-be consumers. Through our gorilla marketing we would encourage our target group to taste our newly branded Home Run Inn. Home Run Inn Target Audience Home Run Inn key target audience is mum with kids from age 3-12. She has a busy schedule; she is concerned about feeding her family right within her daily routine. She is the decision maker at home when it comes to what the family eats and she loves her family to enjoy freshly baked, healthy and well prepared pizza within the comfort of her home. Therefore, she is considering healthy and none-time consuming pizza that will bring satisfaction to her family feeding experience. Home Run Inn brand position Home Run Inn is family oriented; therefore, our brand is strategically positioned among mums with kids who have busy lives and are concerned with the well-being of their family. Creative brief for Home Run Inn Pizza 1. What is the opportunity and/or Problem the advertising must address? Home Run Inn though is referred to as Chicago number one yet the brand is not well known among some pizza enthusiast as a result they don’t consider buying the brand. Even those who claimed to know the brand still don’t buy. They would rather buy brand like Digiorno because it has ongoing advertisement which easily brings the brand to memory when they see it on display in the stores. We want to address this problem of lack of awareness through our advertising and make our target market to be informed and aware of our brand. . What do we want people to do as a result of the advertisement? As a result of our advertisement we want consumers to consider Home Run Inn Pizza first when they think of buying frozen pizza. 3. Who are we talking to? Mums with kids between ages 3-12: We are talking to ups and doing mums with kids, who like to feed their family rights despite their busy schedules. They are health c onscious; they love to eat good pizza with their family within the comfort of their homes. 4. What’s the key response that we want? We want our target audience to feel that Home Run Inn pizza is the right food for them because it is healthy. 5. What information/attributes might help produce this response? Information such as: our brand rich history and the availability of different styles that may meet the desired need of our target market. 6. What aspect of brand personality should the advertising express? The aspect of brand personality that the advertising should express should be the friendly, approachable and reliable aspect of our brand. 7. Are there media or budget consideration? Yes, there are media considerations. We hope to use social media marketing tools to engage our target market. We will embark on guerilla campaign and the traditional TV ads. Since, our target audience is mum with kids, we would use print media advertising campaign that will directly appeal to mum’s plight. Our print advertisement will use both the billboards and the magazines channel. 8. This could be helpful†¦ * The name Home Run Inn was given to the pizza through an accidental landing of base ball on the founder’s tavern * Home Run Inn was founded in Chicago * It’s a family owned business†¦ Our CTB statement for Home Run Inn Convince mum with kids that Home Run Inn is the best pizza in the market because is healthy and easy to prepare. PR/Promotion for Home Run Inn Pizza Theme: when pizza matters†¦ PR: Home Run Inn will leverage partnership with the Boys scout of Chicago during its 3rd Annual â€Å"Scout Night with the Chicago Fire Soccer Club†. During the night out event, Home Run Inn will supply free pizza to the first 200 attendee of the event while every other attendee after the first 200 will have the opportunity of receiving Home Run Inn coupons. PROMO We will have promotional slogan for Home Run Inn Pizza during the event†¦Because we care†¦ Our plan for the promotion is to encourage people to donate 10 cents for each box of Home Run Inn pizza they purchase; the proceed will be given towards providing support for the Chicago fire soccer club. We hope to achieve this plan by asking consumers to buy Home Run Inn Pizza four times and get the fifth one free, provided they show proof of purchase. Spider Chart: xxx Magazine campaign Ad #1: xxx (Woman thinking) Whenever I think of Home†¦I think of you†¦Home Run Inn Pizza, feeding made easy†¦ Ad #2: xxx (Tired woman) No matter how tired I am†¦Home Run Inn has the magic†¦Home Run Inn†¦we feed right†¦ Direct/Internet marketing * Mailing- Home Run Inn coupons will be mailed out to the homes of those people we know buy our product. The inscription on our envelope will read†¦because we care†¦ We will also mail invitations to them concerning The Chicago Boys Scout Night out. We will encourage them to come and be part of the event as â€Å"free pizza† will be served to the first 200 attendee of the event. * Email- Email will also be sent out regarding the Chicago Boys Scout Night Out event. The subject of our email also will be †¦because we care†¦We will inform our target in the email that they can bring members of their family to the event since we are family focused brand†¦ Free pizza for the first 200 people†¦ Rationale Home Run Inn target audience is mum with kids; having this background knowledge influences our strategic approach towards rebranding our product among the target audience. While strengthening the brand among the earlier mentioned target audience, we do believe that new market will be gained that will eventually lead to an increase in patronage of our brand in the market lace. References 1. Our Story: Retrieved on 08/07/2012, from http://www. homeruninnpizza. com/our-story/history-a 2. Home Run Inn Pizza scores in retail arena with frozen niche: Retrieved on 08/07/2012, from http://www. findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_m3190/is_n12_v28/ai_14919920/ 3. Home Run Inn Tops Chicago in frozen pizza sales: Retrieved on 08/08/2012, from http ://www. mediapost. com/publications/article/121542/home-run-inn-tops-chicago-market-in-frozen-pizza-s. html 4. Consumers Reports put frozen pizza to the test: Retrieved on 08/08/2012, from http://www. pizzamarketplace. om/article/178146/Consumer-Reports-puts-frozen-pizza-to-the-test 5. Pizza Quest, Home Run Inn and Palermo’s: Enterprise builders. Retrieved on 08/09/2012, from http://jimbaker. wordpress. com/2010/02/01/pizzaquest/ 6. Frozen Pizza: Which Taste Best? Retrieved on 08/09/2012, from http://www. goodhousekeeping. com/product-reviews/food/food-products/frozen-pizza 7. Frozen pizza Hits a growth Bump: Retrieved on 08/09/2012, from http://www. supermarketguru. com/index. cfm/go/sg. viewarticle/articled/2120 8. Top 10 frozen pizzas: : Retrieved on 08/09/2012, from, http://www. dailypress. com/news/dp-toptenlist. o14,0,3664087. story How to cite Intergrated Marketing Plan for Home Run Inn Pizza, Essay examples

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Evidence Based Practice in Nursing Care and Treatment

Question: How important it is to equip nurses at the hospitals with a critical bent of mind? Answer: Introduction Evidence based practice in nursing helps in the providing better care and treatment to the patients. This particular approach helps in building expertise from the clinical aspect along with it, aiding in devising decisions that will provide an economic way of treatment for the patient as well as the health care management (Groves, Burns Gray, 2014). From the given case study, the question that arises is, How important it is to equip nurses at the hospitals with a critical bent of mind? The management at the hospitals should ask themselves this particular question while appointing nurses. Nursing is no longer limited to simple take care of a patient (DiCenso, Guyatt Ciliska, 2014). It as an all-round job when, at times the nurses might have to fill into the shoes of a physician in his absence. An able nurse would do it at ease; however, one who lacks that particular bent of mind might land up losing a patient due to her lack of judgement (LoBiondo et al., 2013). Hence, this idea ha s been explored in details, based on the framework of evidence based practice. According to the case study, two nurses, Jessica, Emily and Chloe, were conflicted in their opinion where Chloe wanted Emily to continue using the auscultatory based sphygmomanometer where as Jessica wanted Emily to use the oscillatory based sphygmomanometer. Having a critical bent of mind would have made Emily realize that both the instruments have their own level of advantages and a single one does not triumph the other. The two different types of blood pressure measurement are exclusive for the ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) (Levin Feldman, 2012). The auscultatory method of measuring blood pressure uses the Korotkoff sound which emanates from an acoustic transducer signal. The auscultatory based sphygmomanometer is similar in function as the normal blood pressure measurement (Polit Beck, 2013). The accuracy level is quite high of this device. It measures the systolic and diastolic pressure of the heart which is combined with the disappearance and appearance of soun ds. The disadvantage includes the poor assessment of blood pressure during weak signals of Korotkoff (Hauck, Winsett Kuric, 2014). This drawback is overcome in an oscillometry based sphygmomanometer. A similar measurement is carried out by the oscillometry based sphygmomanometer where the blood pressure can be measured even in the absence of the Korotkoff signal (Melnyk et al., 2013). It does not require a microphonic sensor. However, it has its own share of disadvantages. The accuracy of the reading is based on the algorithms that used to analyse the signals. A sound knowledge of the instruments would have made the nurses realize that these two instruments are not that different from each other. This was just one of the instances. There are several reports and case studies that can be found in the archives of the Nurses and Midwifery Board of Australia where lack of competence has made a patient lose a life and later the responsible nurse had to go through legal hassles (Straka, Brandt Brytus, 2013). One of the common problems that nurses as well as physicians face is the issue of medication safety. The government of Australia has issued the standards and Medication safety forms the fourth point. According to this standard, the nurses and the physicians have to practice safety while administering medicines to the patients (Dearholt Dang, 2012). Most of the times it has been observed that due to lack of proper communication, or a lag in the performance of the nurses, the patients well being gets compromised. There have been instances where the patient lost his life due to wrong dosage of a medication or lack of skills in administering the dosages (Grove, Burns Gray, 2012). There have been technological advances like smart IVs, computerized physician order entry, avoid adverse effect of drug, bar code verification technology, implementation of monitoring improvement, introduction of no interruption zone in critical care units, and several other modifications have been made in order to help nurses become more vigilant and attentive towards the well being of their patients (Abbott, Sherry Simmons, 2013). Along with all sorts of technicalities, it is also important for the nurses to be conceptually sound. Most of the times it has been seen, that the nurses do not pursue subjects, like biochemistry or human anatomy, in their nursing courses; the common reason being the criticality of the subjects and the poor success rate (Friesens-Storms et al., 2015). However, the lack of knowledge of these two important subjects creates a dent in the competence of the nurses. It is necessary for a nurse to know about the different human body parts and about their function and locations. It becomes handy during a diagnostic session with the patient in the absence of the physician (Stetler et al., 2014). The adverse effect of drugs can be avoided if the nurse is well versed in the chemical composition of the drug. In this way, without the aid or the prescription of the physician, the nurse herself can administer the dosages as per the requirement of the students. It helps in saving a lot of precious t ime on the part of the patient (Dogherty et al., 2013). Other than the technicalities as well as the concepts, nurses also need to develop certain personal attributes in order to serve their patients with quality treatment and care. The case study showed how upset Emily appeared with her patient who was apparently a child. She had lost her patience while dealing with the child, and had wished to be done with him soon enough (Flynn et al., 2012). Patients are unruly and demanding most of the times. Therefore, it is expected that the nurses would pay attention to all their needs and fulfil all their demands without losing a hair. It might sound like a one-way street, however, the sense of duty comes first and everything else takes a back seat in the life of the nurse (Freeman et al., 2013). Patience is a virtue and nobody has ever regretted for having developed it. Nurses should also develop leadership qualities so that they can come forward with ideas in order to improve the management and make it work in favour of the patients (Galanter e t al., 2013). The healthcare expenses are shooting through the roof these days. A smart nurse would offer a suggestion, post proper negotiation with the patient and his family, and settle down with something that is feasible and easier to meet. Compassion and good behaviour are irreplaceable characteristics in a nurse (Hakkarainen et al., 2012). They should also abide by all the medical and nursing standards that have been framed for them. It helps them from getting embroiled in legal hassles due to their carelessness in paying attention to the nitty-grittys of the standards framed by the Nurses and Midwifery Board of Australia (Ohashi et al., 2014). The management at the hospitals should devise a curriculum for the nursing students so that they inculcate these attributes in their characters before being professionally working as a nurse. The course work also needs to be revised to make sure that the nurses are equipped with all the possible concepts that will prove to be helpful for themselves while appraising the condition of a patient in the absence of a supervising physician. There should also be brainstorming sessions to realize how far they are progressing in their courses and whether they will be able to handle the pressure once they join a hospital. The needs in a hospitals scenario are very different from that of attending regular classes. Long with their course work sessions, they should be given hands on experience on several subject matters such as the human anatomy. The subject should be taught in an embedded fashion with the theory paper. It will provide a better learning of the subject and also ease out the student s who are constantly worried about not being able to clear the paper. Conclusion Every person, every patient, who visits a hospital, hopes to receive a quality treatment, recover soon and step out of the hospital as a new person. The nurses play an important role in making this desire a reality. Yes, nurses are human too. It might be definitely physically and emotionally tolling for them to carry out a tedious job. However, the well being of the patient should be the priority. They would have to work harder to match up to the expectations of the patients. Proper knowledge of the condition of the patient will help the nurse to make a better assessment of the patient and provide help for a speedy recovery. A lack of these attributes can in an unfortunate situation prove to be fatal for the patient. Hence, the hospital management should be a little wary while appointing nurses. So much depend on their hands. Evidence based practices is hugely successful in building the competence of the nurses as previous case studies make them assess the situation with a current pa tient. Although nothing can replace the level of expertise one gains from experience rather than studying case studies. However, in order to receive a background, thorough study of previous cases as noted by the doctors and available online, should be studied carefully by the nurses. Reference Abbott, P., Mc Sherry, R., Simmons, M. 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